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Machine Learning

A collection of articles and resources on clinical applications of machine learning.

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RESEARCH

Original Investigation

External Validation of a Widely Implemented Sepsis Prediction Model in Hospitalized Patients

Andrew Wong, MD, Erkin Otles, MEng et al.

Research Letter

Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests

Mary O’Keeffe, PhD, Alexandra Barratt, MD et al.

Original Investigation

Concordance Between Blood Pressure in SPRINT and in Routine Clinical Practice

Paul E. Drawz, MD, MHS, MS, Anil Agarwal, MD et al.

Original Investigation

Detection of Pathogenic Variants With Germline Genetic Testing in Patients With Prostate Cancer and Melanoma

Saud H. AlDubayan, MD, Jake R. Conway, BSc et al.

Research Letter

Geographic Distribution of US Cohorts Used to Train Deep Learning Algorithms

Amit Kaushal, MD, PhD, Russ Altman, MD, PhD et al.

Preliminary Communication

Effect of a Machine Learning–Derived Early Warning System vs Standard Care on Hypotension During Noncardiac Surgery

Marije Wijnberge, MD, Bart F. Geerts, MD, PhD, MSc, MBA et al.

Research Letter

Automatically Charting Symptoms From Patient-Physician Conversations Using Machine Learning

Alvin Rajkomar, MD, Anjuli Kannan, AB et al.

Research Letter

Temporal Trends and Characteristics of Reportable Health Data Breaches

Thomas H. McCoy Jr, MD, Roy H. Perlis, MD, MSc

Original Investigation

Machine Learning Screen for Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Diseases

Daniel Shu Wei Ting, MD, PhD, Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, PhD et al.

Original Investigation

Machine Learning Detection of Breast Cancer Lymph Node Metastases

Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, MS, Mitko Veta, PhD et al.

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REVIEW

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature

How to Read Articles That Use Machine Learning

Yun Liu, PhD, Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen, PhD et al.

JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods

On Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis

Lawrence Carin, PhD, Michael J. Pencina, PhD

OPINION

Viewpoint

Modernizing Public Health Data Systems

Kushal T. Kadakia, MSc, Michael D. Howell, MD, MPH et al.

Editorial

Importance of External Validation in Sepsis

Anand R. Habib, MD, MPhil, Anthony L. Lin, MD et al.

Viewpoint

Leveraging the Medicare Program for a COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign

Nicole Lurie, MD, MSPH, Bettina Experton, MD, MPH

Viewpoint

Navigating Through Healthcare Data Disrupted by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Kayoko Shioda, DVM, MPH, Daniel M. Weinberger, PhD et al.

Invited Commentary

A Tale of 2 Blood Pressures

John A. Dodson, MD, MPH, Daichi Shimbo, MD

Editorial

Bioinformatics, Sequencing Accuracy, and the Credibility of Clinical Genomics

W. Gregory Feero, MD, PhD

Viewpoint

Algorithmic Stewardship for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Technologies

Stephanie Eaneff, MSP, Ziad Obermeyer, MD et al.

Viewpoint

AI-Assisted Conversational Agents in Health Care—Clinical, Legal, and Ethical Aspects

John D. McGreevey III, MD, C. William Hanson III, MD et al.

Viewpoint

Action-Informed Artificial Intelligence—Matching the Algorithm to the Problem

Christopher J. Lindsell, PhD, William W. Stead, MD et al.

Editorial

Randomized Clinical Trials of Artificial Intelligence

Derek C. Angus, MD, MPH

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SPECIALTY MACHINE LEARNING
Cardiology
Convolutional Neural Network With Explainability for 12-Lead ECGs JAMA Cardiology |
Leveraging Large Clinical Data Sets for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine JAMA Cardiology |
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Use of Machine Learning Models to Predict Death After Myocardial Infarction JAMA Cardiology |
Finding New Meaning in Everyday Electrocardiograms JAMA Cardiology |
Nonphysician Diagnosis and Triage in Case Vignettes Before and After Internet Search JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning and Dispatcher Recognition of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest JAMA Network Open |
A Tale of 2 Blood Pressures JAMA Internal Medicine |
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SPECIALTY MACHINE LEARNING
Dermatology
Risk of Bias and Error From Data Sets Used for Dermatologic AI JAMA Dermatology |
Clinical Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence–Based Digital Wound Assessment Tools JAMA Network Open |
Patient Perspectives on the Use of Artificial Intelligence JAMA Dermatology |
Patient Perspectives on the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Skin Cancer Screening JAMA Dermatology |
Skin Cancer Detection Apps Unreliable JAMA |
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SPECIALTY MACHINE LEARNING
Cardiology
Dermatology
Convolutional Neural Network With Explainability for 12-Lead ECGs JAMA Cardiology |
Risk of Bias and Error From Data Sets Used for Dermatologic AI JAMA Dermatology |
Leveraging Large Clinical Data Sets for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine JAMA Cardiology |
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Clinical Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence–Based Digital Wound Assessment Tools JAMA Network Open |
Use of Machine Learning Models to Predict Death After Myocardial Infarction JAMA Cardiology |
Finding New Meaning in Everyday Electrocardiograms JAMA Cardiology |
Nonphysician Diagnosis and Triage in Case Vignettes Before and After Internet Search JAMA Network Open |
Patient Perspectives on the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Skin Cancer Screening JAMA Dermatology |
Machine Learning and Dispatcher Recognition of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest JAMA Network Open |
Skin Cancer Detection Apps Unreliable JAMA |
A Tale of 2 Blood Pressures JAMA Internal Medicine |
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Neurology
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Brain Electrical Activity–Based Index to Aid in Diagnosing Concussion Among Athletes JAMA Network Open |
Burden of Neurological Disorders Across the US From 1990-2017 JAMA Neurology |
Social Norm Email Feedback Program and Unnecessary Prescription of Nimodipine in Older Adults JAMA Network Open |
Trends in Cervical Spine Curvature Assessed by Deep Learning System Segmentation JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Prediction of Treatment Response to Antidepressants JAMA Network Open |
Development of a Tool to Predict Incidence of Chronic Disease JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Predict Final Ischemic Stroke Lesions From Initial MRI JAMA Network Open |
Accuracy of Imputation for Apolipoprotein E ε Alleles in Genome-Wide Data JAMA Network Open |
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Oncology
Deep Learning for Clinical Image Analyses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Data Quality, Data Sharing, and Moving Artificial Intelligence Forward JAMA Network Open |
Data Set and Deep Learning Algorithm for Analyzing Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images JAMA Network Open |
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Predictors of 30-Day Mortality After Colorectal Cancer Surgery JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model to Predict Sepsis in Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplant JAMA Network Open |
Embracing Patient-Centric Endeavors to Improve Operating Room Efficiency JAMA Surgery |
Digital Cytology for Cervical Cancer Screening in Resource-Limited Setting JAMA Network Open |
Prediction of Occult Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Using Deep Learning JAMA Network Open |
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Neurology
Oncology
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Deep Learning for Clinical Image Analyses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Brain Electrical Activity–Based Index to Aid in Diagnosing Concussion Among Athletes JAMA Network Open |
Data Quality, Data Sharing, and Moving Artificial Intelligence Forward JAMA Network Open |
Burden of Neurological Disorders Across the US From 1990-2017 JAMA Neurology |
Data Set and Deep Learning Algorithm for Analyzing Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images JAMA Network Open |
Social Norm Email Feedback Program and Unnecessary Prescription of Nimodipine in Older Adults JAMA Network Open |
Global Media Coverage of the Benefits and Harms of Early Detection Tests JAMA Internal Medicine |
Trends in Cervical Spine Curvature Assessed by Deep Learning System Segmentation JAMA Network Open |
Predictors of 30-Day Mortality After Colorectal Cancer Surgery JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Prediction of Treatment Response to Antidepressants JAMA Network Open |
Embracing Patient-Centric Endeavors to Improve Operating Room Efficiency JAMA Surgery |
Development of a Tool to Predict Incidence of Chronic Disease JAMA Network Open |
Digital Cytology for Cervical Cancer Screening in Resource-Limited Setting JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Predict Final Ischemic Stroke Lesions From Initial MRI JAMA Network Open |
Accuracy of Imputation for Apolipoprotein E ε Alleles in Genome-Wide Data JAMA Network Open |
Prediction of Occult Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Using Deep Learning JAMA Network Open |
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Ophthalmology
Whole-Volume Automated Segmentation of OCT in Retinal Disease Using Deep Learning JAMA Ophthalmology |
Deep Learning–Based Automated OCT Segmentation in Clinical Routine JAMA Ophthalmology |
Automated Retinal Fluid Volume Quantification JAMA Ophthalmology |
Using Artificial Intelligence to Identify Serious Retinopathy of Prematurity JAMA Network Open |
Multidimensional Deep Learning Platform for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model With Survival Statistics to Predict Graft Failure JAMA Ophthalmology |
Development, Validation, and Innovation in Ophthalmic Laser-Based Imaging JAMA Ophthalmology |
Deep Learning Algorithms and the Protection of Data Privacy JAMA Ophthalmology |
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Otolaryngology
Deep Learning for Clinical Image Analyses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Deep Learning to Augment Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Head and Neck and Prostate Cancers JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning–Guided Adjuvant Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Analyze Social Media Discussions About the HPV Vaccine JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model for Survival Risk Stratification in Advanced Oral Cancer JAMA Network Open |
Automated Mandibular Movement Monitoring for Obstructive Sleep Apnea JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning by Ultrasonography for Genetic Risk Stratification JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Machine Learning Model to Help Predict Survival Among Patients With OSCC JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Using Laryngectomies to Help Voice Concerns About Health Care Databases JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Formal Idiographic Inference in Medicine JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
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Ophthalmology
Otolaryngology
Whole-Volume Automated Segmentation of OCT in Retinal Disease Using Deep Learning JAMA Ophthalmology |
Deep Learning for Clinical Image Analyses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Deep Learning–Based Automated OCT Segmentation in Clinical Routine JAMA Ophthalmology |
Deep Learning to Augment Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Head and Neck and Prostate Cancers JAMA Network Open |
Automated Retinal Fluid Volume Quantification JAMA Ophthalmology |
Machine Learning–Guided Adjuvant Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer JAMA Network Open |
Using Artificial Intelligence to Identify Serious Retinopathy of Prematurity JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Analyze Social Media Discussions About the HPV Vaccine JAMA Network Open |
Multidimensional Deep Learning Platform for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model for Survival Risk Stratification in Advanced Oral Cancer JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model With Survival Statistics to Predict Graft Failure JAMA Ophthalmology |
Automated Mandibular Movement Monitoring for Obstructive Sleep Apnea JAMA Network Open |
Development, Validation, and Innovation in Ophthalmic Laser-Based Imaging JAMA Ophthalmology |
Machine Learning by Ultrasonography for Genetic Risk Stratification JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Machine Learning Model to Help Predict Survival Among Patients With OSCC JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Deep Learning Algorithms and the Protection of Data Privacy JAMA Ophthalmology |
Using Laryngectomies to Help Voice Concerns About Health Care Databases JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
Formal Idiographic Inference in Medicine JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery |
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Pediatrics
Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children Before Inpatient Discharge JAMA Network Open |
Using Artificial Intelligence to Identify Serious Retinopathy of Prematurity JAMA Network Open |
Multidimensional Deep Learning Platform for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Assessment of Early Life Factors Predicting Suicide Attempt JAMA Network Open |
Respiratory Function in Children Wearing Face Masks During the COVID-19 Pandemic JAMA Network Open |
Effect of Clinical Decision Support on Diagnostic Imaging for Pediatric Appendicitis JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Analyze Social Media Discussions About the HPV Vaccine JAMA Network Open |
A Dynamic Diagnosis Grading System for Infertility Using Machine Learning JAMA Network Open |
Validation of A Machine Learning Model to Predict Childhood Lead Poisoning JAMA Network Open |
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Psychiatry
Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression After a Motor Vehicle Collision JAMA Psychiatry |
Comparison of Methods to Reduce Bias From Clinical Prediction Models of Postpartum Depression JAMA Network Open |
Nonphysician Diagnosis and Triage in Case Vignettes Before and After Internet Search JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Assessment of Early Life Factors Predicting Suicide Attempt JAMA Network Open |
Prediction, Not Association, Paves the Road to Precision Medicine JAMA Psychiatry |
Multimodal Machine Learning Workflows for Prediction of Psychosis JAMA Psychiatry |
Machine Learning Model to Estimate Weekly US Suicide Fatalities JAMA Network Open |
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Pediatrics
Psychiatry
Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children Before Inpatient Discharge JAMA Network Open |
Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression After a Motor Vehicle Collision JAMA Psychiatry |
Using Artificial Intelligence to Identify Serious Retinopathy of Prematurity JAMA Network Open |
Multidimensional Deep Learning Platform for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening JAMA Network Open |
Comparison of Methods to Reduce Bias From Clinical Prediction Models of Postpartum Depression JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Assessment of Early Life Factors Predicting Suicide Attempt JAMA Network Open |
Respiratory Function in Children Wearing Face Masks During the COVID-19 Pandemic JAMA Network Open |
Nonphysician Diagnosis and Triage in Case Vignettes Before and After Internet Search JAMA Network Open |
Effect of Clinical Decision Support on Diagnostic Imaging for Pediatric Appendicitis JAMA Network Open |
Use of Deep Learning to Analyze Social Media Discussions About the HPV Vaccine JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Assessment of Early Life Factors Predicting Suicide Attempt JAMA Network Open |
A Dynamic Diagnosis Grading System for Infertility Using Machine Learning JAMA Network Open |
Prediction, Not Association, Paves the Road to Precision Medicine JAMA Psychiatry |
Multimodal Machine Learning Workflows for Prediction of Psychosis JAMA Psychiatry |
Validation of A Machine Learning Model to Predict Childhood Lead Poisoning JAMA Network Open |
Machine Learning Model to Estimate Weekly US Suicide Fatalities JAMA Network Open |
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Surgery
Deep Learning to Automate Technical Skills Assessment in Robotic Surgery JAMA Surgery |
Ethical Issues Posed by AI Intraoperative Decision Support JAMA Surgery |
A 3-D Convolutional Neural Network for Automatic Surgical Skill Assessment JAMA Network Open |
Equity and Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Care JAMA Surgery |
Clinical Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence–Based Digital Wound Assessment Tools JAMA Network Open |
Predictors of 30-Day Mortality After Colorectal Cancer Surgery JAMA Network Open |
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Radiology
Data Quality, Data Sharing, and Moving Artificial Intelligence Forward JAMA Network Open |
Data Set and Deep Learning Algorithm for Analyzing Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images JAMA Network Open |
Deep Learning Model to Quantify IFTA From Kidney Ultrasonography Images JAMA Network Open |
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks to Diagnose Scaphoid Fractures JAMA Network Open |
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks to Identify Scaphoid Fractures in Radiographs JAMA Network Open |
Effect of Clinical Decision Support on Diagnostic Imaging for Pediatric Appendicitis JAMA Network Open |
Multimodal Machine Learning Workflows for Prediction of Psychosis JAMA Psychiatry |
Development, Validation, and Innovation in Ophthalmic Laser-Based Imaging JAMA Ophthalmology |
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Surgery
Radiology
Deep Learning to Automate Technical Skills Assessment in Robotic Surgery JAMA Surgery |
A 3-D Convolutional Neural Network for Automatic Surgical Skill Assessment JAMA Network Open |
Deep Learning Model to Quantify IFTA From Kidney Ultrasonography Images JAMA Network Open |
Equity and Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Care JAMA Surgery |
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks to Diagnose Scaphoid Fractures JAMA Network Open |
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks to Identify Scaphoid Fractures in Radiographs JAMA Network Open |
Clinical Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence–Based Digital Wound Assessment Tools JAMA Network Open |
Effect of Clinical Decision Support on Diagnostic Imaging for Pediatric Appendicitis JAMA Network Open |
Multimodal Machine Learning Workflows for Prediction of Psychosis JAMA Psychiatry |
Predictors of 30-Day Mortality After Colorectal Cancer Surgery JAMA Network Open |
Development, Validation, and Innovation in Ophthalmic Laser-Based Imaging JAMA Ophthalmology |
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Crowdsourced Models for Prediction of COVID-19 Diagnosis and Hospitalization

Yao Yan, BS, Thomas Schaffter, PhD et al.

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Research Letter

Adherence to HbA 1c Testing Recommendations During COVID-19

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Original Investigation

Wearable Sensors to Detect Influenza and the Common Cold Before Symptom Onset

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Research Letter

Prevalence of Third-Party Data Tracking by US Hospital Websites

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Viewpoint

Diagnostic Errors, Health Disparities, and Artificial Intelligence

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JAMA Health Forum |

Original Investigation

A Machine Learning Triage Tool for Risk of Death After Emergency Admission

Feng Xie, BSc, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, MBBS, MPH et al.

JAMA Network Open |

Research Letter

Telemedicine for Specialty Care in North Carolina Correctional Facilities

Saif Khairat, PhD, MPH, Aaron Bohlmann, PharmD, PSM et al.

JAMA Network Open |

Research Letter

Consistency of an Adverse Outcome Prediction Tool for Patients With COVID-19

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Original Investigation

Clinical Characterization and Prediction of Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among US Adults

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In the News

WHO Offers Guidance on Use of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine

Joan Stephenson, PhD

JAMA Health Forum |
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